## Physics

- AST 309/MAE 309/PHY 309/ENE 309: The Science of Fission and Fusion EnergyPower from the nucleus offers a low-carbon source of electricity. However, fission power also carries significant risks: nuclear proliferation (North Korea, Iran), major accidents (Chernobyl, Fukushima), and waste disposal (Yucca Mountain). Fusion carries fewer risks, but the timetable for its commercialization is uncertain. We will delve into the scientific underpinnings of these two energy sources, so you can assess them for yourselves. A benefit of this course is that you will expand your scientific and computational skills by applying them to important real-world problems.
- AST 403/PHY 402: Stars and Star FormationStars form from interstellar gas, and eventually return material to the interstellar medium (ISM). Nuclear fusion powers stars, and is also the main energy source in the ISM. This course discusses the structure and evolution of the ISM and of stars. Topics include: physical properties and methods for studying ionized, atomic, and molecular gas in the ISM; dynamics of magnetized gas flows and turbulence; gravitational collapse and star formation; the structure of stellar interiors; production of energy by nucleosynthesis; stellar evolution and end states; the effects of stars on the interstellar environment.
- ELE 456/PHY 456: Quantum OpticsSemiclassical field theory of light-matter interactions. Quantum theory of light, vacuum fluctuations and photons. Quantum states and coherence properties of the EM field, photon counting and interferometry. Quantum theory of light-matter interactions, Jaynes-Cummigns (JC) model. Physical realizations of JC model, case study:circuit QED. Quantum theory of damping. Resonance fluorescence. Coupled quantum non-linear systems.
- ELE 560/PHY 565/MSE 556: Fundamentals of NanophotonicsIntroduction to theoretical techniques for understanding and modeling nanophotonic systems, emphasizing important algebraic properties of Maxwell's equations. Topics covered include Hermitian eigensystems, photonic crystals, Bloch's theorem, symmetry, band gaps, omnidirectional reflection, localization and mode confinement of guided and leaky modes. Techniques covered include Green's functions, density of states, numerical eigensolvers, finite-difference and boundary-element methods, coupled-mode theory, scattering formalism, and perturbation theory. The course explores application of these techniques to current research problems.
- GEO 419/PHY 419: Physics and Chemistry of Earth's InteriorThis class will introduce students to the modern study of the structure, composition, and evolution of the Earth's interior. We will integrate findings from geophysical observations, laboratory experiments, and computational models to develop a holistic picture of the large-scale behavior of our planet. The course will be divided into four major sections: 1) origin and composition of the Earth; 2) physical and chemical properties of Earth materials; 3) global Earth structure; 4) Earth dynamics. The course will introduce current topics and the latest findings from the scientific literature.
- ISC 233/CHM 233/COS 233/MOL 233/PHY 233: An Integrated, Quantitative Introduction to the Natural Sciences IIAn integrated, mathematically and computationally sophisticated introduction to physics and chemistry, drawing on examples from biological systems. This year long, four course sequence is a multidisciplinary course taught across multiple departments with the following faculty: T. Gregor, J. Shaevitz (PHY); O. Troyanskaya (COS); J. Akey (EEB); E. Wieschaus, M. Wuhr (MOL); B. Bratton, J. Gadd, A. Mayer, Q. Wang (LSI). Five hours of lecture, one experimental lab, one three-hour precept.
- ISC 234/CHM 234/COS 234/MOL 234/PHY 234: An Integrated, Quantitative Introduction to the Natural Sciences IIAn integrated, mathematically and computationally sophisticated introduction to physics and chemistry, drawing on examples from biological systems. This year long, four course sequence is a multi-disciplinary course taught across multiple departments with the following faculty: T. Gregor, J. Shaevitz (PHY); O. Troyanskaya (COS); J. Akey (EEB); E. Wieschaus, M. Wuhr (MOL); B. Bratton, J. Gadd, A. Mayer, Q. Wang (LSI). Five hours of lecture, one three-hour lab, one three-hour precept.
- PHY 102: Introductory Physics IIThis course presents an introduction to the fundamental laws of nature, especially optics, electricity/magnetism, nuclear and atomic theory. These are treated quantitatively with an emphasis on problem solving. The laboratory is intended to give students an opportunity to observe physical phenomena and to gain "hands-on" experience with apparatus and instruments.
- PHY 104: General Physics IIThis calculus-based course is primarily geared to students majoring in engineering and physics, but is also well suited to majors in other sciences. The goal of the course is to develop an understanding of the fundamental laws of physics, in particular, electricity and magnetism, with applications to electronics and optics.
- PHY 106: Advanced Physics (Electromagnetism)This course features the classical theory of electricity and magnetism, with emphasis on the unification of these forces through the special theory of relativity. While the subject matter is similar to that of PHY 104, the treatment is more sophisticated. The topics also include DC and AC circuits and the electromagnetic behavior of matter.
- PHY 108: Physics for the Life SciencesPHY108 is designed to introduce physics and its applications to students interested in the life sciences. This 1-semester, stand-alone course is broadly organized around 4 major concepts: Optics, Radiation & Electromagnetism, Fluids and Oscillators. Specific topics are chosen to be directly relevant to modern life science research while exploring a full range of concepts in physics. For the spring of 2021, students will make use of in-precept demo kits for a hands-on introduction to various topics. Lab projects will further explore the connection between physics and the life sciences.
- PHY 109: Physics Methods and ApplicationsPHY 109 will focus on physics concepts, methodologies, and problem solving techniques, with a selection of topics drawn from the PHY 103 and 104 curriculum. PHY 109 has no lab component. The goal of the course is a mastery of mechanics (PHY 103), together with the related mathematical tools, and a first exposure to concepts from electricity and magnetism (PHY 104). This is the first course in a two-course sequence, concluding with PHY 110 in the summer term.
- PHY 208: Principles of Quantum MechanicsThis is the Physics Department's introductory quantum mechanics course. Its intent is to present the subject in a fashion that will allow both mastery of its conceptual basis and techniques and appreciation of the excitement inherent in looking at the world in a profoundly new way. Topics to be covered include: state functions and the probability interpretation, the Schroedinger equation, uncertainty principle, the eigenvalue problem, angular momentum, perturbation theory, and the hydrogen atom.
- PHY 210: Experimental Physics SeminarThis seminar introduces fundamental techniques of electronics and instrumentation. The course consists of weekly hands-on labs that introduce the students to the fascinating world of electronics. We begin with learning how to build circuits and probe their behavior and then explore what can be done to create instrumentation and make measurements. We start with analog electronics and then proceed with programmable digital logic with FPGAs. The final project involves Machine Learning implemented in FPGAs, a glimpse of what modern electronics can do. Prerequisites: None. One three-hour seminar and one precept by appointment.
- PHY 235: Introduction to Research in PhysicsThis course will develop skills necessary to be successful in scientific research, such as programming, data analysis, and scientific writing and communication. In-class activities will apply these skills to research questions about dark matter - what is its true nature and how can we discover it? Students will be introduced to a broad range of topics in cosmology and particle physics, and build proficiency with scientific computing in Python as well as machine learning methods. Guidance will be provided in identifying summer research opportunities and funding support.
- PHY 304: Advanced ElectromagnetismElectromagnetic theory based on Maxwell's equations. Electrostatics, including boundary valve problems, dielectrics, and energy considerations leading to the Maxwell stress tensor. Magnetostatics and simple magnetic materials. Electromagnetic waves, retarded potentials and radiation. Familiarity with vector calculus is assumed.
- PHY 312: Experimental PhysicsStudents work in small groups and perform four experiments and an electronics lab. The list of experiments to choose from includes muon decay, beta decay, optical pumping, Mossbauer effect, holography, positron annihilation, electron diffraction, single photon interference, NMR, the Josephson effect, and an observation of galactic hydrogen. Weekly lectures will provide an overview of various experimental techniques and data analysis.
- PHY 403/MAT 493: Mathematical Methods of PhysicsMathematical methods and terminology which are essential for modern theoretical physics. These include some of the traditional techniques of mathematical analysis, but also more modern tools such as group theory, functional analysis, calculus of variations, non-linear operator theory and differential geometry. Mathematical theories are not treated as ends in themselves; the goal is to show how mathematical tools are developed to solve physical problems.
- PHY 502: Communicating Physics (Half-Term)Becoming an effective communicator requires time and practice refining a number of skills. This course focuses on the subset of skills most helpful for graduate students during their time at Princeton University. The primary goals of the course are: Learn to become superior communicators, learn to create a fair and inclusive environment, learn research-proven teaching methods, gain experience communicating in many different settings.
- PHY 506/MSE 576: Advanced Quantum MechanicsThe course looks at advanced topics in quarantine mechanics beyond the i ritual theoretical concepts and leading to some current areas of research. Focus is placed on entanglement, density matrices, entanglement entropy and entanglement spectrum, area and volume laws, Stabilizer codes in 2 and 3 Dimensions, ground states and eigenstates of famous 1D, 2D,3D models and entanglement possible types of phases or matter- from symmetry broken to topological, and other examples of quantum effects in recent physics discoveries.
- PHY 510: Advanced Quantum Field TheoryRelations between Quantum Field Theory and Statistical Mechanics, Renormalization Group, Non-Abelian Gauge Theories, Asymptotic Freedom, Quantum Chromodynamics, Chiral Lagrangians, General Constraints on RG Flows.
- PHY 521/MAT 597: Introduction to Mathematical PhysicsAn introduction to the statistical mechanic of classical and quantum spin systems. Among the topics to be discussed are phase transitions, emergent structures, critical phenomena, and scaling limits. The goal is to present the physics embodied in the subject along with mathematical methods, from probability and analysis, for rigorous results concerning the phenomena displayed by, and within, the subject's essential models.
- PHY 529: High-Energy PhysicsAn overview of modern elementary particle physics and the Standard Model. Specific topics include: detector physics, QED, EWK physics, CP violation, Higgs physics, and neutrino physics, with an emphasis on areas of current interest.
- PHY 536/MSE 577: Advanced Condensed Matter Physics IICourse introduces and present ongoing theoretical investigations of new research topics in condensed matter physics: topological insulators and Chern numbers, topological superconductors, the fractional quantum Hall effect and non-abelian statistics, as well as new high-temperature superconductors. The techniques needed to deal with such systems, such as Chern numbers, topological band theory, Berry phases, conformal field theory, Chern-Simons theory, t-J models, Gutzwiller wavefunctions, Hubbard models, are explained.
- PHY 562: BiophysicsBiological systems are special because they function. We start by exploring the ability of the visual system to count single photons, where we meet many physics problems that organisms have to solve, at many scales. We then turn to candidate physical principles which might organize our understanding of the biological solutions to these problems. Examples are drawn from a wide range of systems, from single protein molecules to flocks of birds, and from bacteria to brains.
- PHY 563: Physics of the Universe: Origin & EvolutionThe course is the first of a two-semester survey (along with PHY 564) of fundamental concepts which underly contemporary cosmology. The first semester focuses on the nearly homogeneous evolution of the universe including the standard big bang picture, inflationary cosmology, dark matter, and the possibility of present-day accelerated expansion. The second semester focuses on the late stages in the evolution of the universe, when gravity results in the growth of large-scale structure, perturbations in the cosmic microwave background, gravitational lensing and other non-linear phenomena.