## Physics

- AST 206/PHY 206: Black HolesBlack holes are amazing: so much mass is contained in such a small region of space that nothing, not even light, can escape. In this class, we will learn to understand what black holes are, and (equally importantly) what they are not (sorry, science fiction!). We will grapple with the seeming simplicity of black holes and their weirdness. We will also study how black holes are discovered and how they give rise to some of the most astonishing phenomena in the Universe. We will cover concepts at the forefront of modern astronomy and physics and highlight the power of quantitative thinking (algebra only) and the scientific method.
- AST 401/PHY 401: CosmologyA general review of extragalactic astronomy and cosmology. Topics include the properties and nature of galaxies, clusters of galaxies, superclusters, the large-scale structure of the universe, evidence for the existence of Dark Matter and Dark Energy, the expanding Universe, the early Universe, Microwave Background radiation, Einstein Equations, Inflation, and the formation and evolution of structure.
- ECE 456/PHY 456: Quantum OpticsSemiclassical field theory of light-matter interactions (Maxwell-Bloch equations). Quantum theory of light, vacuum fluctuations and photons. Quantum states and coherence properties of the EM field, photon counting and interferometry. Quantum theory of light-matter interactions, Jaynes-Cummigns (JC) model. Physical realizations of JC model, case study:circuit QED. Quantum theory of damping. Resonance fluorescence. Coupled quantum non-linear systems: Lattice CQED, Superradiance
- ECE 560/PHY 565/MSE 556: Fundamentals of NanophotonicsIntroduction to theoretical techniques for understanding and modeling nanophotonic systems, emphasizing important algebraic properties of Maxwell's equations. Topics covered include Hermitian eigensystems, photonic crystals, Bloch's theorem, symmetry, band gaps, omnidirectional reflection, localization and mode confinement of guided and leaky modes. Techniques covered include Green's functions, density of states, numerical eigensolvers, finite-difference and boundary-element methods, coupled-mode theory, scattering formalism, and perturbation theory.
- ISC 233/CHM 233/COS 233/MOL 233/PHY 233: An Integrated, Quantitative Introduction to the Natural Sciences IIAn integrated, mathematically and computationally sophisticated introduction to physics and chemistry, drawing on examples from biological systems. This year long, four course sequence is a multidisciplinary course taught across multiple departments with the following faculty: T. Gregor, J. Shaevitz (PHY); O. Troyanskaya (COS); J. Akey (EEB); E. Wieschaus, M. Wuhr (MOL); S. Biswas, J. Gadd, A., Kalra, O. Kimchi, A. Mayer, H. McNamara, C. Yuste (LSI). Five hours of lecture, one three-hour experimental lab, one three-hour computational lab.
- ISC 234/CHM 234/COS 234/MOL 234/PHY 234: An Integrated, Quantitative Introduction to the Natural Sciences IIAn integrated, mathematically and computationally sophisticated introduction to physics and chemistry, drawing on examples from biological systems. This year long, four course sequence is a multi-disciplinary course taught across multiple departments with the following faculty: T. Gregor, J. Shaevitz (PHY); O. Troyanskaya (COS); J. Akey (EEB); E. Wieschaus, M. Wuhr (MOL); J. Gadd, B. Husic, O. Kimchi, A. Mayer, H. McNamara (LSI). Five hours of lecture, one three-hour experimental lab, one three-hour computational lab.
- MSE 504/CHM 560/PHY 512/CBE 520: Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics Simulation in Statistical Physics & Materials ScienceThis course examines methods for simulating matter at the atomistic scale with emphasis on the concepts that underline modern computational methodologies for classical many-body systems at or near statistical equilibrium. The course covers Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics (from basics to advanced techniques), and includes an introduction to ab-initio Molecular Dynamics and the use of Machine Learning techniques in molecular simulations.
- PHY 102: Introductory Physics IIThis course presents an introduction to the fundamental laws of nature, especially optics, electricity/magnetism, nuclear and atomic theory. These are treated quantitatively with an emphasis on problem solving. The laboratory is intended to give students an opportunity to observe physical phenomena and to gain "hands-on" experience with apparatus and instruments.
- PHY 104: General Physics IIThis calculus-based course is primarily geared to students majoring in engineering and physics, but is also well suited to majors in other sciences. The goal of the course is to develop an understanding of the fundamental laws of physics, in particular, electricity and magnetism, with applications to electronics and optics.
- PHY 106: Advanced Physics (Electromagnetism)This course features the classical theory of electricity and magnetism, with emphasis on the unification of these forces through the special theory of relativity. While the subject matter is similar to that of PHY 104, the treatment is more sophisticated. The topics also include DC and AC circuits and the electromagnetic behavior of matter.
- PHY 108: Physics for the Life SciencesPHY108 is designed to introduce physics and its applications to students interested in the life sciences. The course is broadly organized around 4 major concepts: Optics, Radiation & Electromagnetism, Fluids and Oscillators. Specific topics are chosen to be directly relevant to modern life science research and techniques. Classes are carried out in a lab-like setting and include hands-on demos to introduce material. The laboratory experience emphasizes exposure to physical concepts related to the life sciences. Weekly help sessions will be offered throughout the semester.
- PHY 109: Physics Methods and ApplicationsPHY 109 will focus on physics concepts, methodologies, and problem solving techniques, with a selection of topics drawn from the PHY 103 and 104 curriculum. PHY 109 has no lab component. The goal of the course is a mastery of mechanics (PHY 103), together with the related mathematical tools, and a first exposure to concepts from electricity and magnetism (PHY 104). This is the first course in a two-course sequence, concluding with PHY 110 in the summer term.
- PHY 208: Principles of Quantum MechanicsThis is the Physics Department's introductory quantum mechanics course. Its intent is to present the subject in a fashion that will allow both mastery of its conceptual basis and techniques and appreciation of the excitement inherent in looking at the world in a profoundly new way. Topics to be covered include: state functions and the probability interpretation, the Schroedinger equation, uncertainty principle, the eigenvalue problem, angular momentum, perturbation theory, and the hydrogen atom.
- PHY 210: Experimental Physics SeminarThis seminar introduces fundamental techniques of electronics and instrumentation. The course consists of weekly hands-on labs that introduce the students to the fascinating world of electronics. We begin with learning how to build circuits and probe their behavior and then explore what can be done to create instrumentation and make measurements. No prerequisites.
- PHY 304: Advanced ElectromagnetismElectromagnetic theory based on Maxwell's equations. Electrostatics, including boundary valve problems, dielectrics, and energy considerations leading to the Maxwell stress tensor. Magnetostatics and simple magnetic materials. Electromagnetic waves, retarded potentials and radiation. Familiarity with vector calculus is assumed.
- PHY 312: Experimental PhysicsStudents work in small groups and perform four experiments and an electronics lab. The list of experiments to choose from includes muon decay, beta decay, optical pumping, Mossbauer effect, holography, positron annihilation, electron diffraction, single photon interference, NMR, the Josephson effect, and an observation of galactic hydrogen. Weekly lectures will provide an overview of various experimental techniques and data analysis.
- PHY 403/MAT 493: Mathematical Methods of PhysicsMathematical methods and terminology which are essential for modern theoretical physics. These include some of the traditional techniques of mathematical analysis, but also more modern tools such as group theory, functional analysis, calculus of variations, non-linear operator theory and differential geometry. Mathematical theories are not treated as ends in themselves; the goal is to show how mathematical tools are developed to solve physical problems.
- PHY 502: Communicating Physics (Half-Term)Becoming an effective communicator requires time and practice refining a number of skills. This course focuses on the subset of skills most helpful for graduate students during their time at Princeton University. The primary goals of the course are: Learn to become superior communicators, learn to create a fair and inclusive environment, learn research-proven teaching methods, gain experience communicating in many different settings.
- PHY 506/MSE 576: Advanced Quantum MechanicsThis is a one-semester course in advanced quantum mechanics, and counts as a "core course" in the physics graduate program. The emphasis is on topics of current interest, such as Berry phases, entanglement, quantum information, and quantum computation.
- PHY 521/MAT 597: Introduction to Mathematical PhysicsAn introduction to the statistical mechanic of classical and quantum spin systems. Among the topics to be discussed are phase transitions, emergent structures, critical phenomena, and scaling limits. The goal is to present the physics embodied in the subject along with mathematical methods, from probability and analysis, for rigorous results concerning the phenomena displayed by, and within, the subject's essential models. The lectures start with a brisk review of what was covered in the course in Spring 2021, and then continue beyond that with a more extended, though still self contained, discussion of quantum systems.
- PHY 536/MSE 577: Advanced Condensed Matter Physics IIThis course focuses on recent developments in the many-body dynamics of quantum systems and quantum circuits. This includes quantum thermalization, operator spreading and scrambling, the dynamics of entanglement, many-body localization, measurement-induced phase transitions, among other topics. Readings are from the recent literature.
- PHY 540: Selected Topics in Theoretical High-Energy Physics: Strings, Black Holes and Gauge TheoriesDiscussion of the old and new methods of quantum field theory with applications to statistical mechanics, turbulence, black holes, dS-space.
- PHY 562: BiophysicsPerhaps biology is deeper than physics, but we won't know until we push into biology from a physics perspective and see where our present knowledge of physics seems to fail. We explore the physics of biological systems from a bottoms-up approach at the start to see where we begin to fail, and then try a top-down approach to see if a gap exists between the two approaches.
- PHY 563: Physics of the Universe: Origin & EvolutionThe course is the first of a two-semester survey (along with PHY 564) of fundamental concepts which underly contemporary cosmology. The first semester focuses on the nearly homogeneous evolution of the universe including the standard big bang picture, inflationary cosmology, dark matter, and the possibility of present-day accelerated expansion. The second semester focuses on the late stages in the evolution of the universe, when gravity results in the growth of large-scale structure, perturbations in the cosmic microwave background, gravitational lensing and other non-linear phenomena.