## Physics

- AST 309/MAE 309/PHY 309/ENE 309: The Science of Fission and Fusion EnergyPower from the nucleus offers a low-carbon source of electricity. Fission power is well developed, but carries risks associated with safety, waste, and nuclear weapons proliferation. Fusion energy research, which presents less such risk, is making important scientific progress and progress towards commercialization. We will study the scientific underpinnings of both of these energy sources, strengthening your physical insight and exercising your mathematical and computational skills. We will also ask ourselves the thorny ethical questions scientists should confront as they contribute to the development of new technologies.
- AST 401/PHY 401: CosmologyA general review of extragalactic astronomy and cosmology. Topics include the properties and nature of galaxies, clusters of galaxies, superclusters, the large-scale structure of the universe, evidence for the existence of Dark Matter and Dark Energy, the expanding Universe, the early Universe, Microwave Background radiation, Einstein Equations, Inflation, and the formation and evolution of structure.
- ECE 456/PHY 456: Quantum OpticsSemiclassical field theory of light-matter interactions (Maxwell-Bloch equations). Quantum theory of light, vacuum fluctuations and photons. Quantum states and coherence properties of the EM field, photon counting and interferometry. Quantum theory of light-matter interactions, Jaynes-Cummigns (JC) model. Physical realizations of JC model, case study:circuit QED. Quantum theory of damping. Resonance fluorescence. Coupled quantum non-linear systems: Lattice CQED, Superradiance
- ECE 560/PHY 565/MSE 556: Fundamentals of NanophotonicsIntroduction to theoretical techniques for understanding and modeling nanophotonic systems, emphasizing important algebraic properties of Maxwell's equations. Topics covered include Hermitian eigensystems, photonic crystals, Bloch's theorem, symmetry, band gaps, omnidirectional reflection, localization and mode confinement of guided and leaky modes. Techniques covered include Green's functions, density of states, numerical eigensolvers, finite-difference and boundary-element methods, coupled-mode theory, scattering formalism, and perturbation theory.
- ECE 569/PHY 568: Quantum Information and EntanglementQuantum information theory is a set of ideas and techniques that were developed in the context of quantum computation but now guide our thinking about a range of topics from black holes to semiconductors. This course introduces the central ideas of quantum information theory and surveys their applications. Topics include: quantum channels and open quantum systems; quantum circuits and tensor networks; a brief introduction to quantum algorithms; quantum error correction; and applications to sensing, many-body physics, black holes, etc.
- GEO 320/AST 320/PHY 320: Introduction to Earth and Planetary PhysicsWhat makes Earth habitable? How have we unraveled the mysteries of planetary interiors? Using a physics-centered approach, we'll explore a range of captivating subjects in earth and planetary science, including the origin of solar systems, tectonic plates, mantle convection, earthquakes, and volcanoes. You will learn methods to study the inner structures and dynamics of planets, not just Earth, but also celestial neighbors like Mars, Venus, Mercury, the Moon, and even exoplanets.
- MAT 595/PHY 508: Topics in Mathematical Physics: Mathematical Aspects of Condensed Matter PhysicsThe course discusses rigorous results in quantum mechanics, relevant for condensed matter physics. Topics to be covered include: Effect of disorder on quantum dynamics, quantum transport and linear response theory, topological phases of matter, quantum Hall effect and topological classification of insulators (via K-theory or otherwise).
- MSE 504/CHM 560/PHY 512/CBE 520: Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics Simulation in Statistical Physics & Materials ScienceThis course examines methods for simulating matter at the atomistic scale with emphasis on the concepts that underline modern computational methodologies for classical many-body systems at or near statistical equilibrium. The course covers Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics (from basics to advanced techniques), and includes an introduction to molecular coarse graining and the use of Machine Learning techniques in molecular simulations.
- PHY 102: Introductory Physics IIThis course presents an introduction to the fundamental laws of nature, especially optics, electricity/magnetism, nuclear and atomic theory. These are treated quantitatively with an emphasis on problem solving. The laboratory is intended to give students an opportunity to observe physical phenomena and to gain "hands-on" experience with apparatus and instruments.
- PHY 104: General Physics IIThis calculus-based course is primarily geared to students majoring in engineering and physics, but is also well suited to majors in other sciences. The goal of the course is to develop an understanding of the fundamental laws of physics, in particular, electricity and magnetism, with applications to electronics and optics.
- PHY 106: Advanced Physics (Electromagnetism)This course features the classical theory of electricity and magnetism, with emphasis on the unification of these forces through the special theory of relativity. While the subject matter is similar to that of PHY 104, the treatment is more sophisticated. The topics also include DC and AC circuits and the electromagnetic behavior of matter.
- PHY 108: Physics for the Life SciencesPHY108 is designed to introduce physics and its applications to students interested in the life sciences. The course is broadly organized around 4 major concepts: Optics, Radiation & Electromagnetism, Fluids and Oscillators. Specific topics are chosen to be directly relevant to modern life science research and techniques. Classes are carried out in a lab-like setting and include hands-on demos to introduce material. The laboratory experience emphasizes exposure to physical concepts related to the life sciences. Weekly help sessions will be offered throughout the semester.
- PHY 109: Physics Methods and ApplicationsPHY 109 will focus on physics concepts, methodologies, and problem solving techniques, with a selection of topics drawn from the PHY 103 and 104 curriculum. PHY 109 has no lab component. The goal of the course is a mastery of mechanics (PHY 103), together with the related mathematical tools, and a first exposure to concepts from electricity and magnetism (PHY 104). This is the first course in a two-course sequence, concluding with PHY 110 in the summer term.
- PHY 208: Principles of Quantum MechanicsThis is the Physics Department's introductory quantum mechanics course. Its intent is to present the subject in a fashion that will allow both mastery of its conceptual basis and techniques and appreciation of the excitement inherent in looking at the world in a profoundly new way. Topics to be covered include: state functions and the probability interpretation, the Schroedinger equation, uncertainty principle, the eigenvalue problem, angular momentum, perturbation theory, and the hydrogen atom.
- PHY 210: Experimental Physics SeminarThis seminar introduces fundamental techniques of electronics and instrumentation. The course consists of weekly hands-on labs that introduce the students to the fascinating world of electronics. We begin with learning how to build circuits and probe their behavior and then explore what can be done to create instrumentation and make measurements. No prerequisites.
- PHY 304: Advanced ElectromagnetismElectromagnetic theory based on Maxwell's equations. Electrostatics, including boundary valve problems, dielectrics, and energy considerations leading to the Maxwell stress tensor. Magnetostatics and simple magnetic materials. Electromagnetic waves, retarded potentials and radiation. Familiarity with vector calculus is assumed.
- PHY 312: Experimental PhysicsThis is an advanced course in experimental physics, including four experiments and an electronics lab. Examples of experiments include muon decay, beta decay, optical pumping, the Mossbauer effect, holography, positron annihilation, electron diffraction, single photon interference, NMR, the Josephson effect, quantum optics, and the observation of Galactic hydrogen. Weekly lectures will provide an overview of various experimental techniques and data analysis.
- PHY 502: Communicating Physics (Half-Term)Becoming an effective communicator requires time and practice refining a number of skills. This course focuses on the subset of skills most helpful for graduate students during their time at Princeton University. The primary goals of the course are: Learn to become superior communicators, learn to create a fair and inclusive environment, learn research-proven teaching methods, gain experience communicating in many different settings.
- PHY 506/MSE 576: Advanced Quantum MechanicsThis is a one-semester course in advanced quantum mechanics, and counts as a "core course" in the physics graduate program. The emphasis is on topics relevant to quantum information, quantum computation, entanglement, and many-body quantum dynamics.
- PHY 510: Advanced Quantum Field TheoryRelations between Quantum Field Theory and Statistical Mechanics, Renormalization Group, Non-Abelian Gauge Theories, Asymptotic Freedom, Quantum Chromodynamics, Chiral Lagrangians.
- PHY 529: High-Energy PhysicsAn overview of modern elementary particle physics and the Standard Model. Specific topics include: detector physics, QED, EWK physics, CP violation, Higgs physics, and neutrino physics, with an emphasis on areas of current interest.
- PHY 536/MSE 577: Advanced Condensed Matter Physics IICourse introduces and presents ongoing theoretical investigations of new research topics in condensed matter physics: topological insulators and Chern numbers, topological superconductors, the fractional quantum Hall effect and non-abelian statistics, flat-band systems, spin liquids. The techniques needed to deal with such systems, such as Chern numbers, topological band theory, Berry phases, conformal field theory, Chern-Simons theory, t-J models, Gutzwiller wavefunctions, Hubbard models, are explained.
- PHY 540: Selected Topics in Theoretical High-Energy Physics: Strings, Black Holes and Gauge TheoriesDiscussion of the old and new methods of quantum field theory with applications to statistical mechanics, turbulence, black holes, dS-space.
- PHY 562: BiophysicsThe living world presents many beautiful phenomena that challenge our understanding of physics. We survey these phenomena, on all scales from single molecules to groups of organisms, discuss experimental progress in "taming" the complexity of these systems, and explore the opportunities for theory. We address explicitly how simplicity can emerge from the underlying complexity and try out physical principles that are special to life.